Knapping and Flaked Stone Analysis

Bruce Bradley

One of my special interests includes making, using, and studying flaked stone artifacts. This began as far back as I can remember, but it all came together in the summer of 1970 when I worked with Prof. François Bordes at the University of Bordeaux, and at the site of Pech de l'Azé in southwestern France. Much of my time involved studying flaked stone and learning flintknapping with Prof. Bordes.

François Bordes at Carsac

This experience was followed by field work in Lebanon with Prof. Jaques Tixier, another master flintknapper. In 1971, I was invited by Prof. Charles McBurney to pursue an advanced degree at Cambridge University, specializing in paleolithic studies. That same summer, I spent time with Mr. Don Crabtree at his knapping school in southwestern Idaho, and from 1972-1976 pursued studies at Cambridge under McBurney and at Southern Methodist with Dr. Garth Sampson, resulting in a successful PhD degree from Cambridge in 1977. My dissertation focused on flaked stone technology replication, and I was one of the first to be awarded a PhD in this new field of experimental archaeology.

My growing interest and expertise in flaked stone analysis and knapping led me to work on Paleoindian sites in the American High Plains with Dr. George Frison of the University of Wyoming and Dr. Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution. I have also worked on materials from Oregon, California, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado. Opportunities led me back to the Old World where I have been engaged in collaborative research in Russia since 1989. My specialties include Eastern European Upper Paleolithic and Western European Middle Paleolithic.: Streletskayan Points Article

In 1995 I attended and gave a presentation at the VII International Flint Symposium in Poland. (see:Prehistoric Flint Mining in Poland) )

In 1989 I produced a Flinknapping Video, aimed especially at beginning students and focusing not so much on individual techniques as concepts underlying the process. This video is still available, either directly from me or through a number of other outlets. (

The following publications are listed chronologically by categories from earliest to most recent.

Publications Relating to Flaked Stone


Bradley, Bruce A.
1976 Experimental Lithic Technology with Special Reference to the Middle Paleolithic. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, England.

Bradley, Bruce A. and George C. Frison
1982a Fluting of Folsom Projectile Points. In The Agate Basin Site, edited by George C. Frison and Dennis Stanford, pp. 209-212. Academic Press, New York.

1982b Fluting Folsom Projectile Points: Archaeological Evidence. Lithic Technology X(1):13- 16.

North America

1974 Comments on the Lithic Technology of the Casper Site. In The Casper Bison Kill Site, edited by George C. Frison, pp. 191-197. Academic Press, New York.

1982 Lithic Typology and Technology at the Agate Basin Site. In The Agate Basin Site, edited by George C. Frison and Dennis Stanford, pp. 181-208. Academic Press, New York.

1991 Flaked Stone Technology in the Northern High Plains. In Prehistoric Hunters of the High Plains, second edition by George C. Frison. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.

1993 Paleo-Indian Flaked Stone Technology in the North American High Plains. In Kostenki to Clovis Upper Paleolithic-Paleo-Indian Adaptations, edited by Olga Soffer and N. D. Praslov. Pages 251-262. Plenum Press, New York.

1997 Flaked Stone Technology at the Sloan Site. In The Sloan Site edited by Dan Morse, Smithsonian Press.

n.d. Manufacture and Use Technology of Projectile Points and Bifacial Implements from Chaco Canyon National Monument. MS on file at Chaco Canyon National Historical Park, New Mexico.

Bradley, Bruce A. and George C. Frison 1987 Projectile points and specialized bifaces from the Horner Site. In The Horner Site: The Type Site of the Cody Cultural Complex, edited by George C. Frison and Lawrence C. Todd. Academic Press, New York.

1996 Flaked-Stone and Worked-BoneArtifacts from the Mill Iron Site. In The Mill Iron Site, edited by George C. Frison.University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Bradley, Bruce A. and Dennis J. Stanford 1987 The Claypool Study. In The Horner Site: The Type Site of the Cody Cultural Complex, edited by George C. Frison and Lawrence C. Todd. Academic Press, New York.

Frison, George C. and Bruce A. Bradley 1980 Folsom Tools and Technology at the Hanson Site. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Old World

1997 Bifacial Thinning in the Early Upper Paleolithic of Eastern Europe. Chips, 9(2):8-9. Branson, Missouri. see : article

Bradley, Bruce, Michail V. Anikovitch, and Evgenij Y. Giria 1995 Early Upper Paleolithic in the Russian Plain: Streletskayan flaked stone artifacts and technology. Antiquity 69:989-998.

Bradley, Bruce A. and Evgenij Y. Giria 1991 Crow Canyon Vocabulary: A Proposal of a Concept of the Technological Analysis of Knapped Stone Industries. Ms on file Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.

1995 Evidence of Long-distance Transport of Flint in the Upper Paleolithic of the Russian Plain. Paper presented at the VII International Flint Symposium.

1996 Concepts of the Technological Analysis of Flaked Stone: A Case Study From The High Arctic. Lithic Technology. Vol.21, No. 1:23-39.

Bradley, Bruce A. and C. Garth Sampson 1978 Artefacts from the Cottages Site. In Paleoecology and Archaeology of an Acheulian Site at Caddington, England, edited by C. Garth Sampson, pp. 83-138. Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas.

1986 Analysis by Replication of an Acheulian Assemblage from Caddington, England. In Stone Age Prehistory edited by G.N. Bailey and P. Callow. CambridgeUniversity Press.


1972 Predynastic Egyptian Flint Implements: An Inductive Technological Sequence. Newsletter of Lithic Technology 2(3):2-5.

1975a Lithic Reduction Sequences: A Glossary and Discussion. In Stone Tool Use and Manufacture, edited by Earl Swanson, pp. 5-14. Mouton Press, The Hague.

1975b A Technique of Drawing Flaked Stone. Newsletter of Lithic Technology 5(1):6-8.

1978 Hard Hammer - Soft Hammer: An Alternative Explanation. Flintknappers' Exchange 1(2):8-10.

1996 Flintknapping. In Faces, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.16-19.

Henry, Don O., C. Vance Haynes and Bruce A. Bradley 1975 Quantitative Variations in Flaked Stone Debitage. Plains Anthropologist 20(68).

Ingbar, E.E., M.L. Larson, and B.A. Bradley 1989 A nontypological approach to debitage analysis. In Experiments in Lithic Technology, Amick and Mauldin eds. pp. 117-135. BAR International Series 528.

Jelinek, Arthur, Bruce A. Bradley and Bruce B. Huckell 1971 The Production of Secondary Multiple Flakes. American Antiquity 36(2): 198-200.


1971-1997 Lithic technology workshops/presentations at Southern Methodist University, Rice University, Case Western Reserve University, University of New Mexico, University of Wyoming, University of Kansas, University of Iowa, University of Minnesota, University of Cambridge, Oxford University, University of California (Berkeley), University of Victoria, University of Kentucky, Michigan State University, University of Massachusetts, University of Texas, University of Texas (San Antonio), University of Northern Kazakhstan, TARL (Austin), University of Oslo.

An excellent source for information about knapping is Knapper's Corner check it out

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